Jakarta is the world’s second-largest city.
Jakarta – Indonesia’s rapidly expanding, low-lying capital
Jakarta is Indonesia’s low-lying capital. Reigning as the world’s second-largest city, it’s landscape and resources are shaped by the waterways that traverse it. Greater Jakarta embodies all the challenges, but also the potential promises, that large urban areas and the development of their infrastructure and service delivery face. In ten years, from 2000-2010, the city’s population grew by seven million. To help you picture that more clearly, that kind of growth is equivalent same number of people that live in city of Kuala Lumpur.
And the end of the growth not in sight – Indonesia is Southeast Asia’s biggest economy and its Gross Domestic Product is forecast to continue to grow at around 5% per year. The current infrastructure project portfolio of Indonesia sits around $100 billion USD. In 2018, infrastructure investments (excluding real estate investments) are expected to total $30 billion USD. Those invested in Jakarta’s future recognise that this is a key moment in this megacity’s development since much of Greater Jakarta’s urban infrastructure is still on the verge of being built. This offers governments and businesses to invest in the inclusiveness of future urban infrastructure development.
Inclusive tendering for housing and basic services schemes.
HCC in Jakarta 2017 and 2018
In 2017, with our partner Slum Dwellers International, we have built community structures and regained trust in working with the various stakeholder groups like the community through activities such as the innovation workshop. By working in a participatory fashion, we have secured high-level political commitment. Both the Jakarta’s Deputy Governor and Jakarta’s Vice Governor have endorsed HCC’s work and agenda. Towards the end of 2017, we have worked closely with our partner Arcadis to translate the local needs assessment into an inclusive business proposition on socialised housing (i.e., a hybrid RUSUN model). This work aims to improve access to basic services, housing and land tenure. The inclusive business proposition is being designed and executed as a PPPP: Public-Private-People-Partnership.
This year we will work towards integrating projects to upgrade slum areas in future city development through the use of inclusive tender requirements, an approach that will be captured in the city’s ‘grand design on slum improvement’ created by HCC, the Jakarta city government, and the World Bank. Furthermore, HCC will spend 2018 finalising the hybrid RUSUN model with input from all stakeholders so as to prepare it for adoption and execution, which is expected to start late in 2018.
Understanding Jakarta's urban stressors.
A city challenged by slums and floods
Accelerating and concentrated urbanisation is global trend that has progressed in such a way that more than 1 billion people globally live in urban slums. If nothing is done, the number of slumdwellers – who face a lack of basic services and safe and reliable infrastructure – will grow to 3 billion by 2030. This produces a substantial number of people made vulnerable by the coexisting forces exerted by rapid urbanisation and climate change in cities situated along river deltas.
It is estimated that more than five million people in Greater Jakarta live in slums or poor ‘kampongs’ (the local term). New arrivals to Jakarta tend to include the rural poor, and land and housing is scarce. It is not uncommon to find people who have illegally built their dwelling with low quality materials, near unsafe conditions like by the side of a river or rubbish dump, or possibly even on government land. This is not without reason, people are reluctant to invest in their homes because of the constant threat of eviction. As a result, only 35% of Jakarta’s homes had access to potable water while 32% of homes had a per capita living space of less than seven square meters per capita according to data from the Central Statistics Agency (2009).
Besides all the challenges brought by rapid growth, Jakarta is also prone to flooding. Approximately 40% of this urban area lies below sea level, which means at least 25% of the city runs a high risk of flooding. This is likely going to worsen given the city registers 12 centimetres annually of subsidence (the sinking of land) while climate change exacerbates the situation with increased rainfall. In 2007, a large flood cost the city more than $400 million in material damages, lost productivity, and traffic jams. Throughout this process of addressing and planning for resilience and access to basic services throughout a megacity, we aspire to channel our coalition’s expertise as worldwide leaders in water management.
Inclusivity in infrastructure projects and urban development.
Working towards SDG11 - HCC’s activities in Jakarta
Given the challenges megacities like Jakarta face, the United Nation’s set forth SDG11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. HCC works towards achieving SDG11 in Jakarta and elsewhere through a form of inclusive urban development that is anchored in government tenders and the funding conditions of multilateral organisations for all planning and infrastructure projects.